Marvel Studios has positioned Carol Danvers to be the only version of Captain Marvel in the MCU. In the comics, the Kree alien Mar-Vell was the first one to take the mantle after people mistook his real name for a superhero identity. (Nice save, Stan Lee.) This does not seem to be the case in the MCU.
Initially, Danvers was an officer in the U.S. Air Force — which is where she met Mar-Vell. However she winds up getting her own cosmic abilities when the Psyche-Magnetron explodes in front of Carol, crossing her DNA with Captain Marvel’s Kree genetics, obviously. In the MCU, Danvers’ energy-blasting abilities come from the Tesseract/the Space Stone, which was powering Mar-Vell’s light-speed engine. Once again, Marvel Studios knows how to masterfully bend the comics to fit the narrative it’s trying to tell.
Carol might’ve been molded into a hero, but Kamala was born one. Eons ago, the Kree were locked in a brutal war with the shape-shifting Skrulls, and in an attempt to create super-soldiers, they wound up experimenting on early humans. This only created a handful of super-beings called “Inhumans” rather than an army of soldiers, and the project was eventually abandoned.
This super-powered Inhuman DNA was passed down through generations of humanity and could be unlocked using mist created from Terrigen crystals. Kamala Khan is one of these Inhumans, and her abilities are unlocked when Black Bolt unleashes Terrigen mist across the world.